Dian Fox, 2nd edn. Oxford, Aris and Phillips in English. Benabu, Isaac. Louise and Peter Fothergill-Payne, pp. Lewisburg, Bucknell University Press. Cruickshank, Don W. Wilson , ed.
Jones, pp. London, Tamesis. Critical Guides to Spanish Texts. London, Grant and Cutler. Fischer, Susan L. Woodbridge, Tamesis. Griffin, Nigel.
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Llangrannog, Dolphin. Jones, C. McKendrick, Melveena. Robbins, Jeremy. Watson, A. Wilson, Edward M. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Similar plays are automatically suggested by our system based on similar fields such as genres and types or keywords. Entry written by Kathleen Jeffs. Last updated on 10 March You must be logged in to add tags. Please log in or sign up for a free account. Luis de Leon, religioso del orden de S.
This proceso , edited by D. Pedro Sainz de Baranda, occupies the tenth volume and pp. It is established beyond doubt, however, that some members of the family used the name Ponce. The works of Luis de Leon's eminent nephew, Basilio, an Augustinian like himself, bear on their title-pages the words 'Basilius Pontius Legionensis'. An echo of the charge is faintly audible in Luis de Leon's own testimony. It is repeated with violence by Leon de Castro: ' This challenge was never taken up.
In common fairness, it should be said that the statement of P. Mendez [see note 1 ] is more in the nature of assertion unsupported by full evidence. This is perhaps too vague to furnish a basis for a conclusion. Luis de Leon states that he made up his mind as to his religious vocation within four or five months of reaching Salamanca. Luis de Leon seems to have arranged that his brother Miguel should pay him annually a small sum which was, apparently, to be spent on books.
XI, p. The latter had died before April, Grajal was so greatly struck with his opponent's ability that he supported Luis de Leon in all his subsequent candidatures. Not altogether, for though Luis de Leon had, in an eminent degree, the knack of success in all open competitions, the students took part in the elections of professors at Salamanca, and this element disturbed calculations.
Tiene mucho caudal de Dios'. Manrique's biography is not within my reach. Luis de Leon's probity was not free from a touch of brusqueness. This was the contention of the prosecuting counsel. Luis de Leon, however, declared that, highly as he thought of Martinez de Cantalapiedra's patristic learning, there was no marked intimacy between them, and that he often did not meet Martinez de Cantalapiedra for a year or two. Leon de Castro's first appointment at Salamanca is dated March 28, he was 'jubilado' on July 5, II, p. It is suggested by Vicente de la Fuente op.get link
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Luis de Leon implicitly denied the charge, which he manifestly thought beneath contempt: 'Y si yo hubiera tratado como Leon cree de que la Inquisicion vedara su libro, yo hiciera que se advirtiera. This intervention would nettle Castro, who seems to have had Jewry on the brain; he mentioned, apparently, that Vatable, St. Jerome, and St. As the names of Luis de Leon and Juan Gallo are omitted, the list cannot be thought exhaustive. These last two omissions are readily explained. This is established by the evidence of Mancio, a professor who came to Medina's rescue: ' Y la otra era que los Cantares eran Carmen amatorium , y le dije: Carmen amatorium ni dice bien ni mal.
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Si dice Carmen amatorium carnale , eso es mal; pero si dice Carmen amatorium spirituale , eso verdad es. Though, in accord with the customary procedure in such cases, each witness who appeared before Gonzalez was sworn to secrecy, it is evident that there was no mystery in Salamanca as to the intention of the Valladolid Inquisitors. On March 25, , a day before the formal order for the arrest of Luis de Leon was actually signed, Diego de Valladolid was accepted as bail to the amount of two thousand ducats, that the said Luis de Leon would go quietly to prison in Valladolid without making any attempt at escape.
Though he was notoriously in weak health, the prisoner does not seem to have received any special consideration. On the other hand, it cannot be maintained that, at the outset, his judges treated him with inhumanity. On March 31, Luis de Leon asked for various things besides four books: one of them a box of powder with which he was usually provided by a nun named Ana de Espinosa to alleviate his heart-attacks. Luis de Leon's request for a knife to cut his food with was so clearly against all prison regulations that he can scarcely have expected a favourable reply.
There was no reason why he should be. Before long matters began to take a graver aspect. A definite charge  emerged that some ten or eleven years earlier  Luis de Leon had translated from the Hebrew into Spanish the Song of Solomon , to which he appended a commentary, also in Spanish. With characteristic courage and candour, in his first confesion of March 6, he volunteered the admission that he had made such a rendering. It was. He had committed a serious indiscretion by infringing the general prohibition of vernacular versions of any part of Scripture. This is not mere sophistry.
What seems to have happened was this. On March 6, , Luis de Leon, whose references to this matter are tinged with regret, uses words which seem to imply that a copy had reached Portugal; and an inquiry, opened at Cuzco in the autumn of , revealed the fact that a transcription of the Cantares que llaman de fray Luis de Leon had been made by Fray Luis Alvarez and conveyed by him to South America.
He candidly avowed doubts as to the prudence of facilitating the reading of the Song of Solomon in Spanish, and would have cancelled all manuscript copies if he could. This he hoped to be able to disown. But fate was hostile to his design.
JAMES FITZMAURICE KELLY, F.B.A.
Constant ill-health hindered him from making rapid headway with his projected Latin translation. If Luis de Leon's opponents expected to overwhelm him by the suddenness, vehemence, or volume of their attack, they must speedily have been disillusioned. The mystic poet proved to be a formidable fighting-man. Before very long it must have dawned upon the Inquisitionary deputies at Valladolid that they had caught a Tartar.
Unversed in the ways of the world, Luis de Leon came of a legal stock, and was thoroughly at home in a law-court. A master of dialectics, he was always alert, always prompt to criticize the evidence, always ready to deal with every point as it arose, always prepared to furnish elaborate written or verbal explanations as to every detail concerning which the tribunal could harbour a reasonable doubt.
It would be idle to attempt to summarize the technical arguments advanced by each side in support of conflicting views on doctrinal or exegetical problems.
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In this place, it will suffice to advert to points which help to illuminate the character of Luis de Leon, or to exemplify the attitude of the court towards him. At the outset, as already stated, there seems to have existed no decided prejudice against Luis de Leon in the minds of his judges: they apparently administered the existing system in a not illiberal spirit.
There are indications, however, that this position of relative impartiality was not maintained.
That the court became gradually biased against the accused seems to follow from the small but eloquent fact of its rejecting Luis de Leon's petition that his University chair should not be declared vacant till the end of his trial. The decision of the court in Luis de Leon's case was in direct conflict with the ruling of the same court as regards Barrientos, another Salamancan professor who was in custody of the Valladolid Inquisition on May 20, But no such appointment would have been possible had the Valladolid Inquisitors been consistent.
What caused the court to be more severe to Luis de Leon than to his colleague Barrientos?
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As time went on the bias of the court against the accused waxed rather than waned. Luis de Leon's ill-health was notorious and, in fact, so obvious that it is recorded by the court in an official minute. Luis de Leon had fainted from lack of food, and, in the circumstances, it is not surprising that he should have asked to be allowed the companionship of a monk of his order—preferably Fray Alonso Siluente—or anybody else whom the court should think fit to name.
In other matters, less urgent but not less important from an orthodox point of view, the Inquisitionary judges at Valladolid made no concession to the prisoner. He asked to be allowed to go to confession, and to say Mass once a fortnight in the hall where his case was heard. A hostile critic might be tempted to say that a vindictive spirit prevailed in the deliberations of the Valladolid tribunal. It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that, as the case developed, the attitude of the Valladolid judges became less and less favourable to Luis de Leon.
Judges are mortals and liable to error. The very pertinacity of the prisoner may have impressed them badly.
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